As a techie, you should be familiar with the different parts of a computer motherboard and its functions. Even if you don’t know how to replace or fix any of these components, it’s still good to know what they are in case you need to get help from a professional. In this blog post, we will take a look at the 20 most common parts of a computer motherboard and what each one does. We’ll also provide some pictures for reference. So, if you’re interested in learning more about computer motherboards, keep reading!
1. CPU Socket
The central processing unit (CPU) socket is where you will install the CPU. This component is responsible for processing all of the instructions that your computer needs to run. It acts as the brain of your computer. There are many types of CPU sockets like LGA 1155, LGA 2066, and AM4. Selecting the right one is essential because a CPU can only be used with a compatible socket type.
A chipset is a group of microchips responsible for managing the data that flows between the CPU and all of the other components in the system. It’s made up of two parts: the northbridge and the southbridge. The northbridge handles all data that flows to and from high-speed devices, such as the CPU and video card. On the other hand, the southbridge manages slower devices, such as USB ports and hard drives.
3. DIMM Slots
DIMM slots are where you will install your computer’s memory (RAM). RAM is responsible for storing the instructions that your CPU needs to access quickly. In general, the more RAM you have, the faster your system will be. Types of DIMM slots include DDR3 and DDR4.
4. Expansion Slots
Expansion cards are used to add extra features to your computers, such as a sound card or wireless network card. For example, you can install a graphics card in the PCI Express x16 slot to improve your system’s video performance. Other expansion slots include PCI Express x1 and PCI.
5. Power Connector
The power connector connects your computer’s power supply to the motherboard. The power supply provides all of the power that your components need to operate. There are many different power connectors, including ATX, EPS, and PCI Express.
6. Fan Headers
Fan headers are used to connect fans to your motherboard. Fans are used to cool down your components and keep them from overheating. There are many different types of fan headers, including 3-pin and 4-pin.
7. I/O Ports
I/O ports are used to connect external devices to your computer. For example, you can use USB ports to connect a mouse or keyboard. Other types of I/O ports include HDMI, DVI, and Ethernet.
LEDs are used to indicate when specific components are powered on or working correctly. For example, many motherboards have a CPU LED that lights up when the CPU is turned on.
9. Reset Button
The reset button is used to restart your computer. This can be handy if your system is frozen and you can’t turn it off using the power button.
10. SATA Ports
SATA ports are used to connect SATA devices to your motherboard. SATA devices include hard drives, solid-state drives, and optical drives. There are different types of SATA ports, like SATA 3.0 and SATA 6.0. SATA 3.0 runs at the maximum speed of 6 Gb/sec.
11. USB Ports
USB ports are used to connect USB devices to your motherboard. USB devices include peripheral devices such as keyboards, mice, and printers. There are many types of USB ports: USB 3.0 and USB 2.0. USB 3.0 is the faster of the two and can transfer data at up to 5 Gb/s. USB 2.0 is the slower of the two and can transfer data at up to 480 Mb/s.
12. HDMI Port
The HDMI port is used to connect an HDMI device to your motherboard. HDMI devices include monitors and TVs. HDMI facilitates the transmission of audio and video signals. HDMI 2.1a is the latest version of the HDMI standard, which supports the highest resolution of up to 8K UHD (7680 × 4320).
13. DVI Port
The DVI port is used to connect a DVI device to your motherboard. DVI devices include monitors and TVs. DVI is a digital interface that can carry video signals. There are three types of DVI ports: DVI – A, DVI-I, and DVI-D. DVI-I can carry both digital and analog signals, while DVI-D can carry digital signals, and DVI-A only carries analog signals.
14. Ethernet Port
The Ethernet port is used to connect an Ethernet cable to your motherboard. Ethernet cables allow your computer to connect to a network. Ethernet is a wired connection that can transfer data at up to 10 Gb/s.
15. PS/2 Port
The PS/2 port is used to connect a PS/2 device to your motherboard. PS/2 devices include keyboards and mice. PS/2 is a legacy interface that can only transfer data at up to 1 Mb/s.
16. CMOS Battery
The CMOS battery provides power to the BIOS chip to remember basic information about your computers, such as the time and date. A dead or dying battery may cause the BIOS settings on your computer to become reset. Replacing the CMOS battery is usually a reasonably simple task.
17. Heat Sink
A heat sink is a device that helps to cool your computer by dissipating heat. Heat sinks are usually made of metal and have fins to help increase their surface area. Many computers have a built-in fan that helps to circulate air around the heat sink and keep the components cool.
18. M.2 Slot
The M.2 slot is a socket used to connect certain types of computer memory modules to the motherboard. M.2 slots are typically used for connecting storage devices such as solid-state drives (SSDs) and other low-profile expansion cards. SSDs that use the M.2 form factor are usually much faster than their 2.5-inch counterparts, and they can also be smaller in size, making them ideal for use in laptops and other space-constrained computing devices.
19. BIOS Chip
A BIOs chip is a particular computer chip on a computer motherboard that stores information about the computer’s basic input/output system (BIOS). This information includes the computer’s hard disk drive, keyboard, and display. The BIOS chip helps the computer to start up and run properly. Without it, the computer would not be able to function correctly. There are different types of BIOS chips, but they all serve the same purpose. Some common manufacturers of BIOS chips are Phoenix, American Megatrends Incorporated (AMI), and Award Software International.
20. Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Header
The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) header is a computer header used to connect a TPM module to a motherboard. TPM modules are used to store cryptographic keys and other sensitive data. The TPM header is usually located on the motherboard.
These are the most critical components that you’ll find on a motherboard. Of course, there are many other less important ones, but these are the ones you’re most likely to encounter and need to know about.
Now that you know all of these components and what they do, you’re ready to start building your computer!